Martinus Nijhoff; 2012. On the other hand, the developed countries have mitigated these issues through efficient supply chain, and by following standard procedures of fruit ripening. In: XVII IMEKO World Congress. The GSO Food Standards Committee, presided by Qatar, has been playing a key role in harmonizing existing GCC standards within the guidelines of the Codex Alimentarius, ISO, and other international organizations. These agents are particularly Unsaturated hydrocarbons; acetylene, ethylene, etc. Key objectives of the regulation are as follows [73]: Promotion of products, whether in a fresh or processed form; Environmental measures and methods of production respecting the environment, including organic farming; Evidently, the laws in different developed countries do not completely prohibit using artificial ripening agents, and often permit the control use of ethylene gas for artificial fruit ripening. Although the terms and conditions of the corresponding legislations vary from country to country, the major objective to enact such laws is to control or prohibit the usage of the chemicals as ripening agents. Individually, these chemicals can have adverse effects on human health [1, 5–7]. Additionally, ethylene is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance (maximum residue level) when used as a growth regulator on fruits and vegetables [71]. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) under the regulation (EC) No 396/2005 developed the Standard Sample Description (SSD), which is a standardized model for the reporting of harmonized data on analytical measurements of chemical substances present in food, feed, and water [72]. According to this law, production or distribution of food or food additives containing contaminants and heavy metals above the safety standard limit is punishable by a fine of RMB 10,000–100,000, and/or revoking of license depending on the extent of the offense [54]. Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules. Technical standards and protocol for the fruit ripening chamber in India. On the other hand, in the presence of moisture and at neutral pH, ethephon is decomposed into ethylene gas, biphosphate ion, and chloride ion [31]. of moisture. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-016-0057-5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-016-0057-5. The prime objective of this article is to report and discuss the legal status of artificial fruit ripening around the world: developed and developing countries. To date, the organization has identified 28 common products for harmonization of standards; however, fruit and fruit-related products are not on the list [42]. Findings related to carbide poisoning have reported headache, dizziness, memory loss, mood disturbances, mental confusion, sleepiness, cerebral oedema and seizure. Comparison of nutritional content of carica papaya sp by ripening agents. Nyor JT. 2013, FAIRS Country Report. Another important issue, especially in the developing world, to address is the complex supply chain. Food Safety and Standards Act, M.O.L.A. Section 6A of the ordinance prohibits the sale of any food in which chemicals such as calcium carbide, formalin, pesticides (DDT, PCBs oil, etc.) Chemicals like calcium carbide / ethephon and oxytocin are reportedly being used in fruit and vegetable mandis / farms for artificial ripening of fruits and for increasing the size of fruits and vegetables respectively. The ABP Publications; 2011. http://www.telegraphindia.com. Unfortunately, there are no international regulations that manage artificial fruit ripening techniques. 2011. Taha M. Qatar food and agricultural import regulations and standards—narrative. 2015, Standing Committee of the 12th National People’s Congress. Different types of artificial ripening agents like calcium carbide, Ethephone are usually using to ripe the tomatoes commercially. MSK conceived the study, supervised the research project, coauthored and supervised manuscript preparation, and helped to finalize the manuscript. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. New Delhi:Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2011. The fruit traders are saying that they are using its small quantity, but who is going to keep control of how much they are using? Goonatilake R. Effects of diluted ethylene glycol as a fruit-ripening agent. 1. a. Among the 53 countries, only 34 have defined food standards, inspection mechanism, and laboratory support system. 1.3 Artificial Ripening Agents As ethylene is the main natural ripening agent, artificial ripening agents are used to produce ethylene. Agric & Food Secur 5, 8 (2016). The article also aims to compare and analyze the existing policies and regulations regarding artificial fruit ripening to find out the best possible solution. early and offseason. 2008;3(1):8–13. Calcium carbide may contain traces of arsenic and phosphorus, both highly toxic to humans, and the use of this chemical for ripening is illegal in most countries. Code of hygienic practice for fresh fruits and vegetables. http://www.codexalimentarius.org/standards/list-of-standards/en/?provide=standards&orderField=fullReference&sort=asc&num1=CAC/RCP. 1955, Gazette of India. The food laws in Pakistan are similar to those in Bangladesh. Prolonged exposure to the chemical could lead to peptic ulcer. Catalogue of East African Standards, E.A.C. Calcium carbide is alkaline in nature and irritates the mucosal tissue in the abdominal region; cases of stomach disorder after eating carbide-ripened mangoes have also been reported [5]. (FSSAI), Editor. http://www.codexalimentarius.org/standards/list-of-standards/en/?provide=standards&orderField=fullReference&sort=asc&num1=CAC/RCP, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-016-0057-5, visalatchi.irudhayanathan@springernature.com. The gas is available in cylinders or as agents like ethepone. 2013. Cabinet okays Formalin Control Act, 2014. It is found naturally in cranberries, prunes, apples and some spices. The banana ripening process can be enhanced using artificial ripening agents such as ethylene gas, ethephon, acetylene (emitted from calcium carbide), ethylene glycol, and alkyl alcohols (containing 6-14 carbon atoms such as lauryl alcohol). On procurement and selling of these banned Chemicals, restrictions should be strictly imposed. The West Pakistan Pure Food Ordinance. Consumer Rights Protection Act 2009, B. Parlliament, Editor. From local storages (or collection points), fruits are transported to the warehouses of major cities and remote areas of the country, from where the retailers collect the fruits and sell them to customers. The Mobile Court Act 2009 gives magistrates the authority to impose maximum sentence of 2 years to anyone who is found guilty of illegal usage of artificial fruit ripening agents [37], and to penalize the person right on the spot. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Regulations, C.R.C., c. 285, September 2011. GSO 2401:2014 under GSO Food Standard Act implies that pineapple belonging to the Bromeliaceae family should be supplied fresh to the consumers upon preparation and packaging [59]. Furthermore, to address the socioeconomic and technical issues of artificial fruit ripening, the governments of developing countries can follow the examples set by the developed countries and may come up with standard fruit ripening techniques. 2003: Dubrovnik, Croatia. Throat sores, cough, and wheezing and shortness of breath may also occur soon after exposure to the chemical. According to the Bangladesh Pure Food Ordinance (Amendment) Act 2005, a new section, 4A, has been introduced that proposes the formation of a National Food Safety Advisory Council (NFSAC), which will advise the Government regarding food safety. For example, in the fiscal year 2006–2007 Bangladesh produced around 2.74 million metric tons of fruits [75]. The UK Food Safety Act enacted in 1990 imposes that any person who renders any food injurious to health by means of any of the operations—adding any article or substance to the food, using any article or substance as an ingredient in the preparation of the food, abstracting any constituent from the food, and subjecting the food to any other process or treatment with intent that it shall be sold for human consumption, shall be guilty of an offense [14]. Farmers and vendors often use artificial ripening agents to control the rate of fruit ripening. S.r.t., Editor. We know from experience that a clear brand and effective communications can help power an organization’s success. United Kingdom’s Soil Association permits the use of ethylene to ripen bananas and kiwi [Soil Association Organic Standards, rev 16.4, June 2011] [19]. 2014. 2005, FAO/WHO: Harare, Zimbabwe. Recently, there is an upsurge in reported cases of carbide-ripened fruits seized in Kenya and Nigeria [2–4]. Strict laws and regulations that ensure food Safety law of the United nations: Dhaka, Bangladesh g cac is. 2011, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, ‘The food Act, which chemical acts as artificial agent for ripening of fruits [ ]! For banana a catalog of East African Standards, inspection mechanism, molecular... Often soft and less tasty, and regulations regarding artificial fruit ripening the Ministry of and... 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